Electric Vehicle Charging
The UK MarketThe rate at which the plug-in vehicle market develops in the UK will be determined by a range of factors. Factors like consumer acceptance and oil prices. Although generally speaking these are difficult to predict. Additionally, independent forecasts suggest that hundreds of thousands of plug-in vehicles could be on the road by 2020. Therefore, we need to be equipped to deal with this. We also need to be ready to accommodate an even faster rate of growth should this occur. We are able to supply and install charging points which are suitable for domestic and commercial environments. As well as roadside, car parks and petrol stations.
EV’s can meet our needs…
- 50% of the worldwide population is living in cities
- In Europe, over 80% of Europeans drive less than 63 miles in a typical day
- In the UK, the average individual journey length is 8.6 miles
- 23 hours is the average time a car is parked each day
- UK target to cut CO2 emissions by at least 80% by 2050
Electric vehicle (EV) is the umbrella term for any vehicle that is powered, in part or in full, by a battery. A battery that can be directly plugged into mains electricity. In short, any vehicle that can be plugged in including pure-electric, plug-in hybrid and extended-range electric vehicles. These aren’t to be confused with Hybrid’s.
- Pure-Electric Vehicle (Pure-EV) – A vehicle powered solely by a battery charged from mains electricity. Currently, typical pure-electric cars have a range of approximately 100 miles but are improving all the time.
- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) - A vehicle with a plug-in battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE). Typical PHEVs will have a pure-electric range of over 10 miles. After the pure-electric range is utilised, the vehicle reverts to the benefits of full hybrid capability (utilising both battery power and ICE) without range compromise.
- Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) - A vehicle powered by a battery with an ICE powered generator on board. E-REV’s are like pure-EV’s but with a shorter battery range of around 40 miles. The range is extended by an on-board generator providing many additional miles of mobility. With an E-REV the vehicle is still always electrically driven.
- Hybrid - A hybrid vehicle is powered by, either or both, a battery and an ICE. The power source is selected automatically by the vehicle. Considerations include speed and engine load, as well as battery charge level. This battery cannot be plugged in; the charge is maintained by regenerative braking supplemented by ICE generated power. A number of fuels can power hybrid ICE’s, including petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas, Liquid Petroleum Gas and other alternative fuels.
Models of ChargingThere are 4 key modes (as defined in the standard BS EN 61851-1) for the charging of an electric vehicle, as summarised below:
- 1: Non-dedicated circuit and socket-outlet, charging without cable-incorporated RCD protection. Mode 1 should not be used for the charging of an electric vehicle because RCD protection, which is necessary for a safe charging system, cannot be guaranteed at all outlets.
- 2: Non-dedicated circuit and socket-outlet. Charging with cable-incorporated RCD protection. Mode 2 can be used for the charging of an electric vehicle in locations where there is no dedicated charging installation (Mode 3 or 4, see below), and for use by legacy vehicles. Mode 2 cables are provided with an in-cable control box (including RCD), set and adjusted to a specific charging power, and guarantee the provision of RCD protection during charging.
- 3: Fixed and dedicated socket-outlet. Mode 3 can be used for the charging of an electric vehicle and this is the preferred solution in the long term. Mode 3 chargers are defined in 2 configurations, either with a tethered cable or a dedicated socket-outlet.
- 4: Dedicated rapid charging, DC supply. Mode 4 is a necessary service function for rapid charging, for use as roadside assistance and also service station charging on long journeys.
Types of Charging and Standard Charging Times
- Slow – using a standard 13 amp supply (10 – 12 hours for full charge)
- Slow – using a 16 amp supply (6 – 8 hours for full charge)
- Fast – uses single or three phase 32 amp supply (3 – 4 hours for full charge)
- Rapid – uses a Direct Current supply (typically 80% charge in 30 mins)